In the end, students must have a solid knowledge of fluid mechanics and be able to solve problems of conventional mechanical dimensioning of fluids encountered by the engineer, and be better able to understand more complex concepts encountered in most specialized industrial sectors. Supplements address the dynamics of industrial flows, internal and external flows, the physical properties of real fluids (rheological behavior, surface tension), compressible flows and physical elements of turbulence and modeling of turbulent flows.

Learning objectives

- Understand the role of the material derivative in transforming between Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions
- Distinguish between rotational and irrotational regions of flow based on the flow property vorticity
- Apply the conservation of mass equation to balance the incoming and outgoing flow rates in a flow system.
- Understand the use and limitations of the Bernoulli equation, and apply it to solve a variety of fluid flow problems
- Work with the energy equation expressed in terms of heads, and use it to determine turbine power output and pumping power requirements
- Use control volume analysis to determine the forces associated with fluid flow
- Use control volume analysis to determine the moments caused by fluid flow and the torque transmitted
- Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow
- Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks and determine the pumping power requirements
- Appreciate why approximations are necessary to solve many fluid flow problems, and know when and where such approximations are appropriate
- Understand the creeping flow approximation, and calculate terminal velocity.
- Understand superposition as a method of solving potential flow problems
- Predict boundary layer thickness and other boundary layer properties
- Have an intuitive understanding of boundary layer separation phenomenon
- Have an intuitive understanding of the various physical phenomena associated with external flow such as drag, friction and pressure drag, drag reduction, and lift
- Calculate the drag force associated with flow over common geometries
- Understand the effects of flow regime on the drag coefficients associated with flow over cylinders and spheres
- Understand the fundamentals of flow over airfoils, and calculate the drag and lift forces acting on airfoils
- Know the main properties of compressible flows (shockwaves, sonic barrier, Barré Saint Venant equation)
- Know the essential features of turbulence in free and wall flows (boundary layers)
- Identify the main elements of choice for turbulence models that they will have to make when using fluid mechanics calculation codes

Learning context

This course complements the basis of fluids mechanics course received in the first year curriculum. The additions made are prerequisites for the course and the project of "Computational Fluid Mechanics" and for Machinery courses 1 and 2 respectively dedicated to incompressible and compressible fluid machine.

Course materials

Students receive a course handout and a copy of the presentations underway. Online course materials also provide explanatory videos and exercises with corrections to the different parts of the course (30 corrected exercises provided).
For the part dedicated to compressible flows and real fluids properties, the presentations being available online.
For the part of the course dedicated to the turbulence, sonorised media associated with self-assessment QCM are available online and are the base material for this part.

Prerequisites

Fluid Mechanics Basics: mass and momentum conservation equations

Course content

I- Reminders and fundamental concepts
II- Conservation equations - Bernoulli
III- Euler equation theorem of momentum
IV- real fluids - Navier Stokes equations
V- Internal Flows
VI- External Flows
VII- Compressible flows: main properties, curves Fanno, shock wave, sonic barrier, flow in convergent nozzles, Laval nozzle.
VIII- Real fluids: viscosity, fluid rheology elements, surface tension (free surfaces)
IX- Turbulence: qualitative aspects, physical properties of turbulence, modeling, turbulent boundary layer

Personal work

At the beginning of each course, students will be able to summarize the main ideas of the previous courses.
Personal work on the course materials online and also with the handout.